In pre-Columbian America, the Amazonian territories near the present city were inhabited by jungle ethnic groups such as the Yameo and Iquito, from which the city took its name. The Iquito settled on the Pastaza, Arabela, Tigre, Nanay and Curaray rivers. There is still a discussion about who settled in the plateau surrounded by the Nanay, Amazonas, Itaya and Moronacocha lakes, where the city of Iquitos is currently located.
Between 1638 and 1769 several indigenous tribes were transferred to settlements known as “reducciones”, administered by the Jesuit missionaries. On many occasions, the reductions had to be relocated, sometimes many kilometers away from their original location, but they used to Keep their name. In that period of time the Jesuits founded several reductions: Juan Nepomuceno de Iquitos and Santa Bárbara de Iquitos in 1740 … .. San José de Iquitos founded by Father Uriarte in 1767, the year in which the Jesuits were expelled from the Hispanic colonies.
In 1757, Iquitos was founded as a Jesuit mission, under the name of San Pablo de los Napeanos.
Between 1863 and 1864, Iquitos was a small town until the arrival of the Peruvian sailors and vessels Pastaza, Prospero and Morona, led by President Ramón Castilla, who brought the pieces to install the Naval Factory (located on the current Malecón Tarapacá). that the city is favorably located between the Nanay River and the left bank of the Amazon River, becoming a mandatory point of departure to other regions.
Rubber fever (Hevea brasiliensis) brought intense commercial attention in the city. Started in about 1880, the event made Iquitos the center of exploitation of rubber in the Peruvian Amazon, along with Manaus Brazil.
Around the year 1914, the rubber monopoly of the Amazon ended when the English plantations in Singapore and Malaysia began to be productive for the rubber harvest. This left Iquitos again in the poverty and isolation of the jungle cities, as well as the abandonment of European-style buildings.
Until 1999, Iquitos has established itself as the most important city in the Peruvian Amazon and the sixth city in Peru. It has public and private universities, several technical institutes, a modern international airport, river ports and a road that connects Iquitos with the city of Nauta.
Iquitos is considered the largest city in the world that does not have a land connection, which is why it can only be reached by air and river. It is the main Peruvian port on the Amazon River and one of the main ones along the river to its mouth in the Atlantic.
Monumental Zone of Iquitos, the Center of Iquitos still has several buildings built during the luxurious rubber era with European design, still retain valuable architectural features unique in Peru. Some examples are the Casa de Fierro (built by Gustavo Eiffel), the Cathedral, the Pinasco House, the Sargento Lores School, the Morey House, the Cohen House, among others.
The Malecón Tarapacá and the Boulevard show some buildings of the time such as the Chapel of Consolation, the Governor’s Office and the Naval Factory.
Port Silfo Alván del Castillo. Called Masusa by the locals, it receives motorboats or boats (large cargo ships and passengers) from Yurimaguas, Santa Rosa and Cabo Pantoja.
Henry Harbor. Private port that receives motor ships from Pucallpa and Yurimaguas.
Puerto El Huequito. Small port where the skips or fast boats will cope with route to Santa Rosa.
Two species of dolphins live in the fresh waters of the Amazon. While the smallest gray dolphin (Sotalia fluviatilis) is found throughout the Amazon and parts of the Atlantic coast, the largest pink dolphin (Inia geoffrensis) is found only in the Amazon. In the tribal folklore of Peru abounds in stories that revolve around the pink dolphin, the histories vary, but are united by the common thread that the dolphins are transformed into nice young people.